Tuesday, April 05, 2005

Forced Labour

Forced labour has existed in various forms throughout history, but it was a peculiarly prominent feature

Saturday, April 02, 2005


Roland Pourtier, Le Gabon, 2 vol. (1989), provides an introduction. Institut Pédagogique National (Gabon), Géographie et cartographie du Gabon (1983), is an illustrated atlas. Two studies of the Mpongwe are Henry Bucher, “The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Gabon Estuary: The Mpongwe to 1860,” in Paul E. Lovejoy (ed.), Africans in Bondage (1986), pp. 137–154, and “The Village of Glass and Western Intrusion: An Mpongwe Response to the American and French Presence in the Gabon Estuary: 1842–1845,” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 6(3):363–400 (1973). James W. Fernandez, Bwiti: An Ethnography of the Religious Imagination in Africa (1982), examines the most important syncretic cult. Pierre-Claver Maganga-Moussavou, Economic Development—Does Aid Help? (1983; originally published in French, 1982), critiques French economic involvement in independent Gabon. Marc Aicardi de Saint-Paul, Gabon: The Development of a Nation (1989; originally published in French, 1987), discusses economic policies and conditions.

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Adam's Peak

Mountain in southwestern Sri Lanka (Ceylon), 7,360 feet (2,243 m) high and 11 miles (18 km) northeast of Ratnapura; it is located in the Sri Lanka hill country. Its conical summit terminates in an oblong platform about 74 by 24 feet (22 by 7 m), on which there is a large hollow resembling the print of a human foot, 5 feet 4 inches by 2 feet 6 inches. The depression is venerated alike by Buddhists, Muslims, and Hindus,

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Fari'ah, Tall Al-

Ancient site in northern Palestine, located near the head of the Wadi al-Fari'ah northeast of Nabulus in Israeli-occupied Jordan. Excavations at the site, spon sored since 1946 by the Dominican École Biblique de St. Étienne in Jerusalem, have revealed that occupation began during the Chalcolithic Age (c. 4000–c. 3000 BC), although no actual structures have been found antedating the beginning

Monday, March 28, 2005

Dehra Dun

City, capital of Uttaranchal state, northern India. It lies in the Himalayan foothills at an elevation of 2,200 feet (670 metres). Dehra Dun was founded in 1699, when the heretical Sikh Guru Ram Rai, driven out of the Punjab, built a temple there. During the 18th century the area succumbed to successive invaders, the last of whom were the Gurkhas. When the Gurkha War ended in 1816, the area was ceded to

Saturday, March 26, 2005

Koch, Martin

Koch came from a lower middle-class family, which his father deserted when the children were very young. The young Koch worked as a labourer's helper, studied art, and became active in the Good Templars Lodge. His first publication

Wednesday, March 23, 2005

Bridgman, Laura Dewey

Bridgman was struck by scarlet fever at the age of two and left without sight or hearing. Her other senses were also affected, but she retained the sense of touch, which she developed sufficiently to learn to sew and knit. In 1837 her case came to the attention